Türkçe kımız Sözcüğünün Tarihî Metinlerde Tanıkları ve Kökeni

Yazarlar

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10435940

Anahtar Kelimeler:

Eski atlı göçebe kültürü, etimoloji, Eski Türkçe kımız, Moğolca esüg ve airag, mayalanmış süt ürünleri, alkollü içecekler, Orta Farsça ḫāmīz, İbranice ḥāmēṣ/chametz

Özet

Bu çalışma, Türkçe kımız “mayalanmış kısrak sütü” sözcüğünün metinsel tanıklarını geniş kapsamlı tarih ve kültürel bağlamı içinde ortaya koymaktadır. Bunu yaparken filolojik ve dilbilimsel analiz, tarihî ve kültürel incelemenin yanı sıra arkeolojik buluntular da kullanılmıştır. Altı ila on üçüncü yüzyıllara ait Bizans Yunancası, Türkçe, Soğdca, Çince, Arapça, Farsça ve Moğolca gibi dillerdeki birincil kaynaklar yeniden değerlendirilmiştir. Mahmûd el-Kâşgarî’de (1077) ve bazı çağdaş Türk dillerinde kımız sözcüğünün esas anlamının “ekşi” olduğuna dair tanıklar bulunmaktadır. Çalışmada Türkçe kımız sözcüğünün doğrudan kaynak kelimesinin (etimon), esas anlamı “ekşi, mayalanmış” olan Orta Farsça ḫāmīz “et turşusu” kelimesi olduğunu öneriyorum. Ayrıca, Sami, İran, Ermeni ve Türk dillerinde bulunan ekşimiş ya da mayalanmış bazı yiyecek ve içecek adlarının nihai kaynağının, Proto-Sami *ḥmṣ “ekşimek, mayalanmak” kökünden türemiş Samice bir kelime (büyük ihtimalle Eski Ahit İbranicesi ḥāmēṣ, modern İbranice chametz “[Pesah sırasında yasak olan] mayalanmış [gıdalar]”) olduğunu iddia ediyorum. Bundan dolayı, İbranice ḥāmēṣ’in bir çeşit “Wanderwort” olarak kabul edilebileceğini ileri sürüyorum. İbranice terimin dinî önemi—Süryanice ve başka diller üzerinden—yayılmasında rol oynamış olmalıdır.

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Yayınlanmış

2023-12-29

Nasıl Atıf Yapılır

Anetshofer, Helga. “Türkçe kımız Sözcüğünün Tarihî Metinlerde Tanıkları Ve Kökeni”. Zemin, no. 6 (Aralık 29, 2023): 34–81. Erişim Temmuz 16, 2024. https://zemindergi.com/index.php/pub/article/view/78.

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